CASE Reports from Previous Code Cycles

The Statewide Utility Codes and Standards Program has a long history of supporting the California Energy Commission in developing and revising California’s Building Energy Efficiency Standards. The program began developing Codes and Standards Enhancement (CASE) reports for the 2001 code cycle. CASE Reports propose reasonable, responsible, and cost-effective code changes that will achieve significant energy or water savings. All CASE Reports that are available below.

 

2001 Code Cycle

Measure Name Measure Description
AB 970 Nonresidential Standards Proposals Includes three unique code change proposals for nonresidential buildings:

  • Lighting Controls: remove exceptions to the mandatory bi-level control requirement that allows the installation of an occupancy sensor or other automatic shut-off control in lieu of bi-level control. It also proposed to extend the requirements for automatic shut-off controls to all buildings and to spaces with lower lighting power levels.
  • High Albedo Roofs: recommends developing a methodology to rate high albedo roofs and encourages the adoption of requirements to encourage high albedo roofs in the standards and voluntary programs.
  • Fenestration Product Rating and Certification: recommends the adoption of NFRC 100-SB, a procedure for rating and certifying commercial building fenestration systems that are typically site built.

 

 

Residential: 2005 Code Cycle

Measure Name Measure Description
Time Dependent Valuation (TDV) – Economics Methodology Presents a methodology for deriving hourly valuations for electricity, natural gas, and propane. Each set of values represents one class of buildings (residential or nonresidential), one of the three fuels, and one of the sixteen California climate zones.
Window Efficiency Requirements Upon Window Replacement Proposed to remove the exemption for replacement fenestration products and clarifies that they are covered as alterations.
Multifamily Water Heating Proposed to establish a custom water heating budget methodology to represent central water heating systems for multifamily buildings. The second proposal was new modeling assumptions that better represents hot water distribution system losses and the impact of controls, insulation and other specific improvements to the systems.
Residential Hardwired Lighting Aimed to reduce residential new construction lighting energy use by encouraging the use of high efficacy lighting, occupancy sensors and photosensors in high-use areas of the home and exterior.
Duct Sealing Requirements upon HVAC or Duct-System Replacement Encompasses two changes: 1) a requirement that duct systems be sealed and tested at the time that an air-conditioner, heat-pump, or furnace is installed in certain existing light commercial buildings, and 2) a requirement that new or replacement duct systems in that same class of buildings meet the same insulation levels as ducts in similarly designed new buildings (i.e. R-8), as well as be sealed and tested.
Hourly Water Heating Calculations Proposed to modify the calculation procedure for estimating water heating energy so that it produces results on an hourly basis, which is consistent with TDV.
Bi-Level Lighting Control Credits Encouraged the use of occupancy sensors, timers and specialized switching strategies in conjunction with bi-level lighting controls in intermittently occupied areas.
Gas Cooling Compliance Options for Residential and Non-Residential Buildings Proposed to explicitly include gas cooling as a compliance option.
Duct Sealing Requirements upon HVAC or Duct-System Replacement: Light Commercial Buildings Encompasses two changes: (1) a requirement that duct systems be sealed and tested at the time that an air-conditioner, heat-pump, or furnace is replaced or installed in an existing building; (2) a requirement that new or replacement duct systems in existing buildings have an insulation level of R-8 as well as be sealed and tested.

Nonresidential: 2005 Code Cycle

Measure Name Measure Description
Time Dependent Valuation (TDV)- Economics Methodology The TDV economics proposal is a methodology for deriving hourly valuations for electricity, natural gas, and propane. Each set of values represents one class of buildings (residential, nonresidential), one of the three fuels, and one of the sixteen California climates.
Cooling Towers Contains three provisions to enhance the performance of chilled water plants. The first measure is a limitation on the use of air-cooled chillers in chilled water plants. The second measure addresses the design of cooling towers to accommodate variations in flow as chillers are staged on or off in multiple chiller plants. The third measure addresses the application of cooling towers with centrifugal fans.
Updates to Title 24 Treatment of Skylights Proposed six changes to skylights: (1) Modifying the description of the daylit zone under skylights; (2) Correcting errors in the definitions of effective aperture and well efficiency; (3) Adding requirements for Automatic Daylighting Control Devices so that they are easy to adjust initially and over time; (4) Adding a mandatory requirement that light fixtures in the daylit area be controlled by photosensors or timeclocks; (5) Revising the Power Adjustment Factors to give more credit to automatic stepped daylighting controls under skylights; (6) Updating the prescriptive requirements for large (greater than 25,000 square feet) low-rise nonresidential buildings to require skylights for floor areas directly under roofs.
Bi-Level Lighting Control Credits Encouraged the use of occupancy sensors, timers and specialized switching strategies in conjunction with bi-level lighting controls in intermittently occupied areas.
High Performance Relocatable Classrooms Propsoed modifications to Relocatable Classroom (RC) Standards requirements for ceiling insulation, cool roofing and lighting, and develops a set of prescriptive envelope component measures.
Nonresidential Duct Sealing and Insulation Proposed updates to the treatment of duct systems in light commercial buildings. Duct insulation R-values are increased from R-4.2 to R-8 for ducts located in an unconditional space or outdoors.
Inclusion of Cool Roofs in Nonresidential Title 24 Prescriptive Requirements Proposed modifying the treatment of cool roofs. Cool roofs will be considered a prescriptive requirement for nonresidential buildings with low-sloped roofs (i.e., roofs with a ratio of rise to run not exceeding 2:12).

Residential: 2008 Code Cycle

Measure Name Measure Description
Demand Responsive Control of Air Conditioning via Programmable Communicating Thermostats (PCTs) Proposed to require that all temperature control of all new spaces and all spaces served by a retrofit HVAC system would include the capability to receive a curtailment signal from the local utility or Independent System Operator (ISO) and be able to set-up the cooling setpoint while receiving the curtailment signal.
Hardwired Standby Loads: Lighting Controls Proposed addressing the standby energy loads from hardwired lighting controls, specifically sensors that regulate usage of nonresidential and high-rise residential lighting fixtures and systems.
Residential Evaporative Cooling Proposed changes in how evaporative coolers are modeled under the Title 24 Residential Building Standards.
Residential Swimming Pools Proposed mandating various design and operational aspects of new swimming pools. The proposed measures aimed to establish the minimum acceptable pool design for increased energy efficiency while maintaining safety standards.
Residential Windows Evaluated possible changes to the prescriptive U- factor and Solar Heat Gain Coefficient (SHGC) for residential fenestration products, to consider various measures and their energy and economic impacts, and to propose appropriate values.

Nonresidential: 2008 Code Cycle

Measure Name Measure Description
Demand Responsive Control of Air Conditioning via Programmable Communicating Thermostats (PCTs) Proposed to require that all temperature control of all new spaces and all spaces served by a retrofit HVAC system would include the capability to receive a curtailment signal from the local utility or Independent System Operator (ISO) and be able to set-up the cooling setpoint while receiving the curtailment signal.
Hardwired Standby Loads: Lighting Controls Proposed addressing the standby energy loads from hardwired lighting controls, specifically sensors that regulate usage of nonresidential and high-rise residential lighting fixtures and systems.
Building Envelope Tradeoff Method The building envelope tradeoff method contained in Section 143(b) contains a building envelope tradeoff procedure whereby fenestration performance, insulation levels and cool roof properties may be traded off to achieve compliance with the standards. This proposal introduced a new coefficient for visual light transmittance in order to better model the different solar heat gain performance between single and multiple layered glazing.
Insulation Requirements Proposed a modification to the prescriptive insulation requirements for nonresidential buildings that are contained in Tables 143-A, 143-B, and 143-C. The standards for relocatable school buildings in Table143-C are for buildings that can be relocated to any climate zone, and so the insulation requirements correspond to
those of the most severe climate zones in Table 143-A.
Outdoor Lighting Proposed revisions to Table 147-A “Lighting Power Allowances for General Site Illumination” and Table 147-B “Lighting Power Allowances for Specific Applications”. In both cases, lighting power allowances will be reduced where appropriate.
Refrigerated Warehouses The proposed changes to Title 24 affect the building shell insulation levels, evaporator fan controls, condenser sizing and control strategies, compressor plant controls and interior lighting levels for refrigerated warehouses. The equipment-related changes deal only with the storage part of the facility; standards for pre-coolers or other clearly process related equipment were not addressed.
Requirements for Signs Addressed the energy savings opportunities available in outdoor signs. The key elements of the proposal are as follows: turn off lights in signs when no one is around; the amount of light needed to see an unfiltered sign during the day is substantially greater than that needed at night; using high efficiency power supplies for neon and cold cathode sources in accordance with temperature limitations of the technology; using electronic high efficiency power supplies for LED signs; dimming loads or turning off a fraction of the load for a few hours per year.
Inclusion of Solar Reflectance and Thermal Emittance Prescriptive Requirements for Steep-Sloped Nonresidential Roofs in Title 24 Proposed adding prescriptive requirements for the solar reflectance and thermal emittance of roofs to California’s Title 24, Part 6 standards for nonresidential buildings with steep-sloped roofs. The proposed measure advocated for the minimum requirements for the solar reflectance and thermal emittance of roofs to reduce cooling energy usage and peak electrical power demand in air-conditioned buildings regulated by Title 24.
TDV (Time Dependent Valuation) Lighting Controls Schedules Encouraged the use of the existing capabilities of the  Energy Commission approved energy simulation tools for modeling lighting controls in line with the TDV regimen.
Demand Responsive Building Plan Decribed the economic, technical, cost-effectiveness and feasibility issues associated with a requirement for prioritizing the demand response (DR) of building loads for nonresidential buildings in the Title 24, Part 6 standards. This proposal involves two levels of requirements, one for all commercial buildings greater than 5,000 square feet and an additional requirement for very large commercial buildings, those greater than 100,000 square feet.
Demand Responsive Controls for Indoor Lighting Recommended a mandatory requirement for demand responsive controls in spaces greater than 100,000 square feet such as office buildings, malls, and theaters. The controls would receive two types of signals from the local utility: an economic response signal which indicates the cost of electricity on a regular basis and an emergency curtailment signal which indicates that the reserve capacity in the region is extremely low.
Updates to Skylighting Requirements The upgrades to the skylighting requirements are minimum space size that triggers requirements for skylighting, daylit area under skylights, photocontrols required in the skylight area under skylights, lighting control credits allowed only when total daylit area in an enclosed space is less than 2,500 square feet, lighting control credits updated, exempt multi-level requirement for daylighting controls when LPD is lower than 0.5 W/square feet, single level controls for skylight retrofits, requirement for a deadband adjustment, clarify area controls and multi-level switching requirements, update the skylight U-factor and SHGC requirements to match default skylight properties.
July 13th, 2006 Workshop Report DDC to the Zone Level 1: VAV Zone Minimums Addressed one of five separate measures that extend the control requirements of the standard. This  report covers the Variable Air Volume (VAV) Zone Minimums. This initiative does not seek to require the installation of DDC to the zone level, rather it extends the current philosophy of the prescriptive requirements.
July 13th, 2006 Workshop Report DDC to the Zone Level 2: Demand Shed Controls Addressed one of five separate measures that extend the control requirements of the standard. This report covers the global demand shed controls. This initiative does not seek to require installation of DDC to the zone level, rather it extends the current philosophy of the prescriptive requirements.
July 13th, 2006 Workshop Report DDC to the Zone Level 3: Hydronic Pressure Reset Addressed one of five separate measures that extend the control requirements of the standard. This report covers the reset of hydronic pressure by zone demand. This initiative does not seek to require installation of DDC to the zone level, rather it extends the current philosophy of the prescriptive requirements.
July 13th, 2006 Workshop Report DDC to the Zone Level Measure 4: Demand Control Ventilation (DCV) Addressed one of five separate measures that extend the control requirements of the standard. This report covers the revisions to demand control ventilation (DCV). This initiative does not seek to require installation of DDC to the zone level, rather it extends the current philosophy of the prescriptive requirements.
July 13th, 2006 Workshop Report DDC to the Zone Level Measure 5: Supply Air Temperature Reset Addessed one of five separate measures that extend the control requirements of the standard. This report covers measure 5, supply air temperature reset controls. This initiative does not seek to require installation of DDC to the zone level, rather it extends the current philosophy of the prescriptive requirements.

Residential: 2013 Code Cycle

Measure Name Measure Description
 Advanced Envelope Assemblies 1- Sept 2011 Includes compliance options for three building envelope assembly types: Advanced Wood Framing (AWF), Insulating Concrete Forms (ICFs), and Structural Insulated Panels (SIPs). This measure is applicable to single family new residential construction.
Advanced Envelope Assemblies 2- Sept 2011 Includes compliance options for three building envelope assembly types: Advanced Wood Framing (AWF), Insulating Concrete Forms (ICFs), and Structural Insulated Panels (SIPs). This measure is applicable to single family new residential construction.
Garage Exhaust Proposed requiring modulating ventilation airflow in large enclosed parking garages based on pollutant concentrations. By modulating airflow based on need rather than running constant volume, the system will save energy and maintain a safe environment.
Guest Room Occupancy Controls Proposed requiring the installation of occupancy controls for HVAC equipment, and all lighting fixtures in hotel/motel guest rooms, including plug-in lighting. Examples of occupancy controls include captive card key controls and sensor-based controls.
High-efficiency Water Heater Ready Proposed that new construction homes shall be equipped with the following water heater supporting components to help reduce future water heater upgrade costs and to encourage installation of HE water heaters.
Increased Wall Insulation- Sept 2011 Proposed applying new prescriptive wall insulation requirements to all new low-rise residential buildings in all climate zones. (Sept. 2011).
Increased Wall Insulation- Oct 2011 Proposed applying apply new prescriptive wall insulation requirements to all new low-rise residential buildings in all climate zones. (Oct. 2011).
Multifamily Central DHW and Solar Water Heating Proposed adding the prescriptive requirement on DHW system with recirculation loops serving multiple dwellings to have (at least) two separate recirculation loops, each serving a portion of the building.
Multi-Head Showers and Lower-Flow Shower Heads Proposed requiring shower heads installed in new construction in California to have a maximum rated flow rate at 80psi of less than or equal to 2.0 gallons per minute (gpm), and would make multi-head showers non-compliant with code unless the total flow rate from all heads at any given time were less than or equal to 2.0gpm. The proposed measure  also required showers to have only one shower head, unless that shower is large enough to require two heads (spacing between heads must be at least four feet).
Night Ventilation Cooling Compliance Option This compliance option proposal presented savings estimates and a methodology for obtaining Title 24 compliance credits for whole house fans (WHFs) and central fan integrated night ventilation cooling systems. Both system types can effectively shift cooling energy use from on-peak hours to off-peak hours.
Nonresidential & High-Rise Residential Fenestration Requirements Proposed an update to change the required NFRC2 performance ratings for nonresidential and high-rise residential buildings.
Residential Ducts- Duct Sealing, Cooling Coil Airflow, Fan Watt Draw, and Measured Static Pressure Proposed that newly constructed residential buildings with ducted heating and cooling systems in all climate zones would have mandatory minimum cooling coil airflow and fan watt draw requirements with two options available for compliance. Option 1: the return duct(s) and return grill(s) must be sized according to the Return System Sizing Table. Option 2: the cooling coil air flow and fan watt draw must meet minimum measured values with HERS verification.
Residential Lighting Proposed changes applying to interior lighting of single-family residences, and the residential units of multifamily buildings. The proposed changes modify the mandatory requirements of the “Base Code” (Title 24, Part 6) and create new prescriptive requirements in the “Reach Code” (Title 24, Part 11).
Residential Plug-load Controls Proposed providing an extra circuit that would enable residents to control the loss of energy due to appliance standby modes during periods of time throughout the day when no appliances on that circuit are being used. The CASE report investigated the feasibility and cost-effectiveness of requiring installation of an additional electrical circuit in all residential new construction dedicated to controlling the main household electric power (mains) to a number of wall receptacles (outlets) throughout the residence.
Residential Refrigerant Charge Testing and Related Issues Proposed changes to the methods of verifying correct charge and proper air conditioner system operation for residential split systems for space cooling. These changes would allow additional procedures to conduct testing under low outside air temperatures, they modify criteria for testing with the subcooling method, they eliminate the temperature split qualification method, and they proposed a new charge method for systems with microchannel condenser coils.
Residential Roof Envelope Measures Proposed increasing the stringency of building envelope requirements by requiring additional insulation at the roof deck, a higher solar reflectance cool roof, and for some climate zones a raised heel truss to allow the full depth of insulation to be installed out to the top plate. A second related measure is to prescriptively require ducts in conditioned space as an alternative to the above. A third related measure is a provision for unvented attics as a compliance option.
Residential Window Efficiency Proposed revisions to the fenestration requirements in the residential Prescriptive Packages C, D, and E. Code language revisions detailed in Sections 5.1, 5.2, 5.3, and 5.4.
Residential Zoned Ducted HVAC Systems A mandatory requirement in the Low Rise Residential Standards for new single family homes and existing homes undergoing HVAC alterations or replacement to ensure the efficient functioning of air conditioners, furnaces, and heat pumps that employ ducted zoned systems.
Single Family Water Heating Distribution System Improvements Proposed utilizing new field information and more advanced evaluation tools to generate new prescriptive and mandatory requirements affecting single family water heating. ACM modifications are proposed to bring the projected annual DHW energy usage closer in line to RASS data, and to update the distribution system multipliers for alternative distribution systems.
Solar Ready Homes and Solar Oriented Development Proposed requiring single family homes to designate a“solar zone” on the roof reserved for future photovoltaic (PV) and solar water heating (SWH) systems. The solar zone would have a minimum area and orientation requirement, be kept free from vents and other protrusions and be unshaded.
Solar Water Heating – Residential and Specialty Commercial Proposed increasing the prescriptive required minimum fraction of water heat to be provided by solar water heating systems for individual dwelling units (i.e. single-family housing) with electric resistance (storage and instantaneous) water heaters using Package C. The solar fraction required will be equal across climate zones, at 0.7.
Upgradeable Setback Thermostats Proposed changing the requirements for setback thermostats in Section 112(c) to require Upgradeable Setback Thermostats (USTs). This measure examines the feasibility of requiring all setback thermostats installed in new construction in the residential and nonresidential sectors to be capable of adding, or enabling, a communication device that would enable demand response.
Water and Space Heating ACM Improvement Addressed several issues related to space heating and DHW systems: improved central DHW ACM algorithms that can assess energy savings from recirculation loop controls and plumbing design optimization; potential improvement of ACM algorithms for hydronic heating systems; standard design assumptions of air distribution ducts in multi-family buildings, minimum efficiency requirements for wall furnaces and space heating boilers, improvement of mandatory pipe insulation requirements and expansion of mandatory pipe insulation requirements to unconditioned buildings.

Nonresidential: 2013 Code Cycle

Measure Name Measure Description
Acceptance Requirements #1: Effectiveness and Compliance (Based on PIER Study) Proposed code changes to revise the standards, instructions, and compliance forms for ten of the existing acceptance tests for the Energy Efficiency Standards for Nonresidential Buildings (Part 6, Title 24): NA7.5.1 Outdoor Air, NA7.5.2 Constant Volume Single Zone Unitary Air Conditioner and Heat Pump Systems, NA7.5.3 Air Distribution Systems, NA7.5.4 Air Economizer Controls, NA7.5.6 Supply Fan Variable Flow Controls, NA7.5.8 Supply Water Temperature Reset Controls, NA7.5.9 Hydronic System Variable Flow Controls, NA7.6.1 Automatic Daylighting Control, NA7.6.3 Manual Daylighting Control, and NA7.6.4 Automatic Time Switch Control.
Acceptance Requirements #2: Based on Retro-commissioning Failure Modes Proposed new or revised acceptance tests or acceptance testing procedures for the Energy Efficiency Standards for Nonresidential Buildings (Part 6, Title 24).
Automated Lighting Controls and Switching Requirements in Warehouses and Libraries Proposed requiring the installation of occupancy sensors in warehouse aisle ways and open spaces, and library stack aisles throughout California. The occupancy sensors are to be configured to switch off at least one-half of the installed lighting wattage, and to be in accordance with Section 119 the occupancy sensor time delay should be no longer than 30 minutes.
Commercial Boilers Presented three proposals that affect certain sizes of new boilers that serve commercial buildings. The first measure, combustion air positive shut off, would apply to new, natural draft (atmospheric) boilers. The second measure is variable frequency drive (VFD) on the combustion air fan. The third measure is parallel position control.
Compressed Air Systems Proposed requiring all new industrial plants’ compressed air systems to include at least one trim compressor that performs efficiently in part load conditions and primary storage, both sized appropriately to meet the minimum trim needs of any other compressors in the system.
Control of Egress Lighting Proposed two possible levels of shut-off during unoccupied periods: Level One, in which the emergency lighting remains on while the building is unoccupied, using no more than 0.05 W/sf and providing 1fc average illumination along the exist path. Level Two, in which the emergency lighting is also shut off, to save additional energy during unoccupied periods.
Cooling Tower Water Savings Applied to evaporative cooling towers 150 tons and larger, installed in new construction and replacement projects for commercial/ industrial/ institutional buildings covered under Title 24, Part 6. Building types/sectors most likely to be affected include those that have a cooling tower used for rejecting heat from an HVAC system (e.g., office building) or used for rejecting heat from process loads (e.g., manufacturing, food processing, etc.).
Design-Phase Commissioning Proposed adding to the code requirements a Design Review process that is completed in two parts: an initial Design Review Kickoff and completion of a construction document Design Review checklist.
Evaporative Cooling System Compliance Credit Provided compliance credits for high-efficiency hybrid evaporative cooling system types in the performance method for compliance with Title 24, Part 6. The change would add or modify a new measure to the list of existing compliance options for meeting the Standards using the performance approach.
Fan Control and Integrated Economizers Proposed to extend the current Single Zone VAV requirement (144(l)) from 10 tons down to 6 tons for DX equipment (starting 1/1/2015) and down to ¼ HP for chilled water equipment. It also clarifies the definition of an integrated economizer: Systems that require an economizer must be able to modulate cooling capacity (e.g. compressor output) down to 20% or less of total capacity.
Laboratory Exhaust VAV and Reheat This measure would apply to laboratory supply and exhaust air systems in California.
Guest Room Occupancy Controls Proposed measure would require the installation of occupancy controls for HVAC equipment, and all lighting fixtures in hotel/motel guest rooms, including plug-in lighting. Examples of occupancy controls include captive card key controls and
sensor-based controls.
Hydronic Low Temperature Radiant Cooling Systems This measure provides an optional HVAC system type in the Nonresidential Alternative Calculation Method (ACM) for hydronic floor-based radiant cooling systems. The change would modify the calculation procedures or assumptions used in making performance calculations when using radiant cooling systems in the proposed building.
Indoor Lighting – Retail Proposed changes to Title 24 for improvements to the lighting component of building efficiency standards as applied to nonresidential buildings, and retail spaces in particular, using the Tailored Method of compliance are: reduce the allowed LPD for Floor Display, Wall Display and Ornamental Lighting under the Tailored Compliance based on increased use of Ceramic Metal Halide (CMH); significantly reduce the space types allowed under the Tailored Method of compliance.
Kitchen Ventilation Described four energy saving measures associated with commercial kitchen ventilation. The four proposed measures addressed: 1. Direct Replacement of Exhaust Air Limitations, 2. Type I Exhaust Hood Airflow Limitations, 3. Makeup and Transfer Air Requirements, 4. Commercial Kitchen System Efficiency Options.
Light Commercial Unitary HVAC Described a number of proposed changes to Title 24, Part 6 that affect controls and economizers. The proposal was to advance parts of the Fault Detection and Diagnostics (FDD) as a prescriptive baseline to detect the following faults: air temperature sensor failure/fault, not economizing when it should, economizing when it should not, damper not modulating, and excess outdoor air.
Lighting Alterations and Modifications in Place Proposed that nonresidential spaces in which 10% or more of the luminaires or ballasts are replaced should be required to comply with the same requirements as new construction, in terms of lighting power densities and lighting controls. There was a proposed exception such that lighting controls do not have to be installed in spaces that have asbestos in the ceiling.
Lighting in Multifamily and Hotel Corridors Proposed to require the installation of occupancy sensors in corridors and stairwells in lodging and multifamily buildings throughout California. The occupancy sensors are proposed to be configured to switch off at least one-half of the installed lighting wattage, and to be in accordance with Section 119 the occupancy sensor time delay should be no more than 30 minutes.
Indoor Lighting Controls Proposed reducing the lighting energy used in offices (open, private and overall). The approach taken was to reduce lighting power densities to the extent possible, and to facilitate the achievement of these reduced LPDs, in part, through a Power Adjustment Factor (PAF) for occupancy controls in open offices.
Nonresidential & High-Rise Residential Fenestration Requirements The proposed update would change the required NFRC2 performance ratings for nonresidential and high-rise residential buildings.
Nonresidential Cool Roofs This proposal would raise the prescriptive reflectance requirement for nonresidential low-sloped cool roofs from Raged = 0.55 to Raged = 0.67. Climate zones 1 and 16 would now have a reflectance standard, also at Raged = 0.67 in climate zones 2-15. For high-rise residential, hotel, and motel occupancies, the reflectance standard would be set at Raged = 0.67 as well; those occupancies would continue to not have a reflectance standard in climate zones 1 and 16.
Nonresidential Daylighting Proposed four code changes that increase the stringency of daylight code requirements, resulting in greater energy savings, and simplify the daylighting code implementation process, removing key barriers to code compliance for greater and more widespread use. The proposed code changes apply to all nonresidential, high-rise residential and hotel/motel occupancies.
Nonresidential Demand Responsive Lighting Controls Investigated the feasibility and cost-effectiveness of requiring automated demand responsive controls on commercial indoor lighting loads. The demand-responsive control would enable users to control their electricity costs during highest cost periods by automatically reducing their lighting electricity consumption upon receipt of a demand response signal.
Nonresidential Solar-ready Buildings Propsed requiring new low-rise nonresidential buildings to be designed such that it will be technically feasible to install, at a future date, a photovoltaic (PV) or solar water heating (SWH) system of the size specified in the code. The solar-ready requirements would apply for major retrofits if the retrofit would increase the total roof area by more than 20 percent.
Outdoor Lighting and Controls Proposed changing IESNA design guidelines for some exterior lighting situations to provide an opportunity to reduce the LPD’s associated with these conditions. The second revision involved the application of motion sensors in exterior lighting situations where the lighting equipment is mounted below 24 feet.
Outside Air Proposed eliminating the option to field calibrate CO2 sensors used in demand control ventilation systems. Instead, certificate of factory calibration would be required for all CO2 sensors.
Parking Garage Lighting and Controls Proposed requiring the employment of sensors (with some limitation) in all parking garage spaces. Further, daylighting controls are required for defined daylight zones.
Plug Load Circuit Controls Investigated the feasibility and cost-effectiveness of requiring automatic shut-off controls of electric circuits that serve plug loads, including task lightings, in office buildings. These controls enable connected task lights and plug loads to be automatically switched off when they are not in use.
Process Boilers Presented four proposals that affect certain sizes of new boilers that serve process loads: combustion air positive shut off, combustion fan variable frequency drive (VFD), parallel position control, and oxygen trim control.
Reduce Reheat Proposed requiring that in the heating portion of the dual maximum sequence for a VAV box, the zone supply air temperature goes up to the maximum setpoint before the zone airflow rate is increased. The intent of this change, therefore, is to prescriptively prohibit the simultaneous flow/temperature sequence.
Refrigerated Warehouse Proposed changes to the following: Freezer Roof Insulation, Freezer Floor Insulation, Evaporator Fan Control for Single Compressor Systems, Screw Compressor Part-Load Performance, Allow Air-Cooled Ammonia Condensers, Condenser Specific Efficiency, Infiltration Barriers, and Acceptance Tests.
Requirements for Controllable Lighting This proposed measure modifies the minimum requirements in Section 131 for multi-level lighting controls in non-residential buildings. The measure requires additional control steps beyond the existing requirements, specified according to light source. The measure also reduces the maximum lighting power density that is exempt from multi-level control.
Supermarket Refrigeration Title 24 Part 6 Measures: Floating head pressure – require controls to float refrigeration system saturated condensing temperature (SCT) to 70°F during low-ambient temperature conditions, with ambient-following control logic and variable speed condenser fans. Title 24 Part 11 (Reach) Code Measures: CO2 secondary (indirect) or cascade cooling – require that refrigerated display cases and walk-in coolers and freezers utilize carbon dioxide (CO2) as the heat-transfer fluid or as the low-side refrigerant in a cascaded system to reduce HFC refrigerant charge.
Upgradeable Setback Thermostats Proposed changing the requirements for setback thermostats in Section 112(c) to require Upgradeable Setback Thermostats (USTs). This measure examines the feasibility of requiring all setback thermostats installed in new construction in the residential and nonresidential sectors to be capable of adding, or enabling, a communication device that would enable demand response.
Water and Space Heating ACM Improvement Addresses several issues related to space heating and DHW systems: improved central DHW ACM algorithms that can assess energy savings from recirculation loop controls and plumbing design optimization; potential improvement of ACM algorithms for hydronic heating systems; standard design assumptions of air distribution ducts in multi-family buildings, minimum efficiency requirements for wall furnaces and space heating boilers, improvement of mandatory pipe insulation requirements and expansion of mandatory pipe insulation requirements to unconditioned buildings.

Residential: 2016 Code Cycle

Measure Name Measure Description
 Residential Instantaneous Water Heaters Revise the prescriptive requirements for water heaters in single family homes and multifamily buildings with dedicated water heaters for each dwelling unit so the primary prescriptive pathway is based on a gas instantaneous water heater.
 Residential Instantaneous Water Heaters Addendum Provides additional information about the residential instantaneous water heating proposal per request of the Energy Commission. Includes information on useful life, maintenance requirements and costs, water heater degradation, isolation valves, and alternative prescriptive pathways.
Residential Ducts in Conditioned Space/High Performance Attics Proposes two alternatives to improve building thermal envelope and reduced HVAC distribution losses in residential buildings:

  • High Performance Attics (HPA) minimizes temperature difference between attic space and conditioned air being transported through ductwork in the attic.
  • Ducts in Conditioned Space (DCS) locates ducts and air handlers in the building’s thermal and air barrier envelope.
 Residential High Performance Walls Reduces the prescriptive U-factor requirements for residential walls, which will reducing the amount of heat transfer through walls and thus reduce HVAC loads.
 Residential HVAC Verification and Diagnostics Recommends revisions to existing refrigerant charging and verification procedures to reduce inefficiencies in residential HVAC equipment.
 Residential Lighting Proposes requirements for high efficacy lighting in all residential new construction applications and eliminates exceptions that allow low efficacy lighting in combination with controls.
 Plug Loads and Lighting Modeling Proposed updated rulesets to use in the residential compliance software to estimate annual energy use of plug loads and lighting .

Nonresidential: 2016 Code Cycle

Measure Name Measure Description
HVAC Equipment Efficiency Based on ASHRAE 90.1-2013 Update mandatory equipment efficiency requirements for space conditioning equipment so all equipment is least as efficient as requirements in ASHRAE 90.1-2013. Adds requirements for propeller or axial fan evaporative condensers and centrifugal fan evaporative condensers to harmonize with new requirements in ASHRAE 90.1-2013.
Proposals Based on ASHRAE 90.1-2013 Proposes four unique revisions to harmonize with ASHRAE 90.1-2013:

 

  • Elevator Lighting and Ventilation: Establishes lighting power density (0.6 watts per square foot) and ventilation efficiency (0.33 watts per cfm) requirements for elevators. When elevator is unoccupied, lighting and ventilation inside cab must shut off.
  • Escalators and Moving Walkway Speed Control: Speed must be reduced when the escalator or moving walkway is unoccupied
  • Direct Digital Controls: Requires most medium and large nonresidential buildings to be equipped with direct digital controls to the zone level.
  • Operable Window/Door Switch Controls: Requires a mechanical switch that disables heating and cooling in perimeter zones when operable windows and doors are open.
Nonresidential Opaque Envelope Revise the prescriptive opaque envelope requirements for all nonresidential and high-rise residential buildings.
Nonresidential Economizer Modifications Clarifies existing requirements for Fault Detection and Diagnostic (FDD) systems for economizers and modifies economizer air flow and leakage requirements.
Thermally Driven Cooling Proposes adding a compliance options for the absorption chillers, adsorption chillers, and desiccant systems that would be available when using he performance approach. Recommends rulesets to add to the nonresidential compliance software.
Nonresidential Lighting: Indoor Lighting Power Densities (LPDs) Revises the lighting power allowances for nonresidential buildings so the values are comparable to those in ASHRAE 90.1-2013 where cost effective.
Nonresidential Outdoor Lighting Power Allowance Update the lighting power allowance requirements so they are based on LEDs as opposed to pulse start metal halides.
Outdoor Lighting Controls (Including Bi-level controls)
  • Expand existing requirement that outdoor lighting be equipped with motion controls that dim lighting when area is unoccupied to cover additional spaces including fueling stations and auto sales lots.
  • Revise allowed wattage reduction during unoccupied periods from 80% to 90%.
Nonresidential Lighting Controls Clarification Simplifies, clarifies and provides compliance credit for inexpensive and effective lighting control strategies. Does not change the stringency of the building code.
Minimum Skylight Area

Reinstate prescriptive requirement for minimum skylight area, which was inadvertently deleted during the 2013 code cycle, while maintaining overall simplicity of the daylighting requirements. The proposed requirement applies to large open spaces with high ceiling heights.